Pediatrics

Diarrhea in Children: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment:

What is Diarrhea?

Diarrhea is characterised by loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal. It is a common gastrointestinal condition that affects children of all ages. It is often accompanied by other symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramping, nausea, and vomiting. Diarrhea can be acute, lasting a few days, or chronic, persisting for weeks.

Causes of Diarrhea in Children:

There are several factors that can lead to diarrhea in children, including:

  • Infections: Viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections are common causes of acute diarrhea in children. These infections can be contracted through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person.
  • Dietary Factors: Consuming certain foods or drinks, such as excessive fruit juices, high-sugar foods, or food intolerances, can trigger diarrhea in some children.
  • Medications: Some medications, such as antibiotics, can disrupt the balance of gut bacteria and cause diarrhea as a side effect.
  • Traveler’s Diarrhea: Children who travel to regions with different sanitation and hygiene standards may be at risk of traveler’s diarrhea caused by unfamiliar bacteria or parasites.

Managing Diarrhea in Children:

The following strategies can help manage diarrhea in children:

  • Encourage frequent small sips of fluids, such as water, oral rehydration solutions, or diluted fruit juices, to prevent dehydration. Avoid caffeinated or sugary drinks.
  • Initially, reintroduce bland, easy-to-digest foods like bananas & rice. Gradually transition to a normal, well-balanced diet as tolerated.
  • Probiotics may help reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea in children. Consult with your paediatrician for appropriate probiotic recommendations.
  • Good Hygiene Practices: Emphasise the importance of handwashing with soap and water, especially before meals and after using the toilet, to prevent the spread of infections.

When to Seek Medical Attention:

While most cases of diarrhea can be managed at home, it is important to seek medical attention if your child experiences:

  • Signs of Dehydration: Decreased urine output, dry mouth, excessive thirst, lethargy, or sunken eyes.
  • Severe Symptoms: Persistent vomiting, severe abdominal pain, high fever, blood in stools, or signs of infection.
  • Chronic or Recurrent Diarrhea: Diarrhea that lasts longer than two weeks or frequently recurs.

It is important to consult a paediatrician if there are persistent or severe symptoms, as well as in cases of dehydration or chronic diarrhea. With proper care and support, most cases of diarrhea in children can be effectively addressed, promoting their overall health and well-being.